Discussion of Results To Date

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*** Latest results

We have added our 485th project member. About 84% of participants with results available have at least one match. ***

4 Feb 2017 The following new members were added: M472 in Misc; M480 (Gilmore) in Group AE; M481 (Judge) in Misc; M482 in Group I; M483 in Misc; M484 in Group A; M485 in Subgroup H2. Also, M421 has been moved to Group AN from Misc. Additional markers have been added for M449 (McElmurry) in Misc.

5 Jan 2017 The following new members were added: M461, Group F; M462, McLemore Group O; M463 and M464, Subgroup N3; M465, Group R; M466, Group G; M467, Subgroup K4; M468, Subgroup J1b; M469 and M470, Group K; M471, Subgroup J2; M473, Group D; M474 and M475, Group I; M476 and M478, New Group AZ; M477 and M479, Misc Group. Additional results were posted for M113, M204, M349, M364, and M409.

2 Sep 2016 M456, M457, and M458 are new members of Group F. M453, M454, and M455 are new members of Group I. M452 is a new member of Subgroup K3. M449, M450, M451, and M459 are new members of the Miscellaneous Group. See www.clanmorrison.net/forum for discussions of the various groups.

20 Jun 2016 M451 is a new Morrison in Miscellaneous.

15 Jun 2016 M446 in Group H2, M447 in Group V, M448 in Group R, M449 in Misc, and M450 in Misc were added.

2 Apr 2016 M444 in Group AO and M445 in Group V were added.

8 March 2016 The following results have been added: M433, Group Q; M434, Misc Group; M435, Misc Group; M436, Group Q; M438, Group F; M439 Group AJ; M441, Misc Group. Note: For more detailed discussion of all Morrison DNA Groups, please visit the Clan Morrison Forum at www.clanmorrison.net/forum .

12 Jan 2016 M431 was added to Group X and M432 was added to Miscellaneous.

7 Sep 2015 The following members not previously noted were added: M420, Forbes, Misc; M426, Gilmore, Group AE, M427, Misc.; M428, Subgroup H2; M429, Reed, Group M; M430, Devoy, Group F.

11 Jun 2015 Added the following members with results: M419, Subgroup N1; M423, Group C; M424, Misc. Various new test results were added.

24 Feb 2015 M413 and M414 were added. New Group AY was formed.

15 Jan 2015 M412 was added to McLemore Group O.

11 Jan 2015 M410 and M411 were added to Group Z and Miscellaneous, respectively. A new SNP result were posted in Group C.

17 Dec 2017 M408 and M409 were added to Group Q and Miscellaneous, respectively. Various haplogroup SNPs were updated.

31 Oct 2014 M407 Kinkead was added to Group P.

26 Aug 2014 Members M403 and M404 have been added to Group I. M402 is in Group AX.

17 May 2014 Members M400 and M401 have been added to Subgroup H2 and Group J, respectively. We have new Group AX, a Morrison family from Virginia and Tennessee.

1 Apr 2014 We have added several new members, including M395 in Group F, M396 in Group G, M399 in Group U, M394 in Miscellaneous Morrisons, and M397 in Miscellaneous Others.

31 Jan 2014 New Groups AT, AV, and AU have been added. Details on each of these groups will be posted to the forum at www.clanmorrison.net/forum . Two new sets of McLemore results have been posted, one in Group O and one in the Miscellaneous group. A Hamilton match to Group F Morrisons has been posted.

20 Jan 2014 New marker results have been added for M009 in Group C. New marker values have been added for the McAdams modal in Group F. M388 is a new member of Group J. M310 was a duplicate and has been deleted from Subgroup N2. New marker results have been added for M304 in Subgroup N2. M391 is a new member of Group P. New results for Markers 38 through 111 have been added for M274 in Group Q. New results for Markers 26-37 have been added for M383 in Group F. M389 and M390 are new members of the Miscellaneous group.

21 Nov 2013 New members M382 through M387 have been added. A new Yahoo ClanMorrisonGenealogy group has been created for those who would like to share in a public discussion of their Morrison, Gilmore, etc., genealogy and DNA results.

19 Sep 2013 New Group AS and new Subgroup N6 have been added to the project. New members M377, M378, M380, and M381 have been added.

17 May 2013 New Group AR has been added to the project. New members M373, M374, and M375 have been added.

15 Mar 2013 New results have been posted for M149, M367, M370, M371, and M372.

20 Dec 2012 - DNA Results table has been updated to include new Group AQ from South Carolina.

19 Dec 2012 - Update on Morrison Group F - We now have DF5 SNP results completed for a representative number of members of this group. Originally, participants had been placed in this group based on matching Y-DNA STR results. With the new DF5 SNP results, we now have independent confirmation that the persons in Group F are indeed related genetically and that the earlier STR matches are not simply due to coincidence.

With this new information, there are several conclusions we can draw. First, we can see from color coding in the Results table that the participants in Subgroups F1 and F2 all share mutations that indicate they are more closely related to each other than to Subgroups F3 and F*. Subgroups F1 and F2 (including F1a, F2a, F2b, and F2c) consist of the surnames Morrison, McMorris, Downing, McNeill and McAdams. Using FTDNA's TiP estimator but with a mutation rate estimated by John Chandler, we estimate that all of these participants are related within the past 500 years +/-. However, the family history of these lines indicate that it is more likely that these lines connect before their migration from Scotland to the North of Ireland in the 1600's. The Morrison name predominates in this cluster, indicating that the other surnames somehow connect back to Morrisons. The McMorris surname probably indicates the Morrisons in this cluster originally had a Gaelic surname, such as Mac Ghille Mhoire. These Morrisons may have originated near MacAdam country in South Ayrshire and Galloway, accounting for a branch of the family with the McAdams name.

Second, again using the TiP estimator, Subgroup F3 of Morrisons from the Isle of Man appears to be related to the others more distantly, but with in the past 700 years +/-. This matches well with the Isle of Man tradition that the first Morrisons there washed ashore in a fishing boat from Scotland. Isle of Man records first show this family in the year 1508 under the name McGilvorr, with the name gradually being anglicized to Morrison. The Isle of Man is easily visible from the Galloway coast.

Finally, we are left with the Moore and Doolin family in Subgroup F*. TiP results indicate these Moores are related to our Morrisons about 500 years ago. Traditionally, these Moores trace to a John O'More b. 1588 in Glasgow. With the new DF5 SNP results, it seems likely that O'More is another variation of the Morrison name. The connection with the Doolin/Dolan surname is not as clear, but may indicate an early migration from or to Ireland, where the name is found in the Galway area. The Doolins are the most genetically distant surname from the Morrisons in this cluster and may connect 1000 years ago +/-. For more DF5 positive results, see the FTDNA DF21 project.

15 Nov 2012 - New SNP results are coming in for Groups F and Q. Also, a number of members of these groups are upgrading to 111 markers. Consequently, with this update, all 111 marker values will be included in the Results chart. This is an excellent time to upgrade due to the current sale prices. With the new SNP results (DF5 and DF41, respectively for the two groups), we have confirmation that the people in these two groups are indeed closely related to others within each group. Using the modal values for the group allows us to construct a family tree for each group based on distinctive mutations in the various branches of the family. The upgrades to 111 markers facilitate this by turning up more branch mutations.

7 Nov 2012 - M315 is a new member of Gilmore Subgroup N2.

23 Oct 2012 - Significant developments are occurring with the discovery of new SNPs, which are the characteristic variations in Y-DNA that have been used in the past to identify major haplogroups. Group Q is the first group to be identified with one of the new SNPs, one called DF41. The new SNP is important because it is rare and therefore can be used for further screening of close DNA matches using the traditional STR markers. This can help in ruling out extraneous matches and finding the other surnames that are true matches to Group Q, which in turn can help in finding the origin of Group Q in Scotland. Since the mutation for the DF41 SNP occurred before surnames, a number of different surnames will have DF41; those who are DF41 positive and who appear to share the same STR marker signature and geographic location as Group Q will provide the best clues to the origin of Group Q.

Group F is another group which may have its own new SNP. In this case the SNP is called DF5. Although testing of Morrisons is still underway, the SNP has already been found in the Doolin and Moore matches listed in Group F. Pending verification of DF5, Group F has been rearranged to better reflect its genetic tree. Subgroups F1 and F1a represent the Morrisons of the North of County Antrim, N. Ireland; they have a defining value for Marker 447, which is highlighted in yellow. Morrisons in Subgroups F2 and F2a appear to be closely related, but not part of the immediate North Antrim family. Morrisons in Subgroup F2a share a characteristic mutation on Marker 391 and this seems to define their own distinct branch of the family. The McAdams and McNeill in Subgroup F2b are a very close Morrison match, but also share their own mutation on Marker 442. They may be more closely related to each other than to the other Morrisons. The Downings in Subgroup F2c are likewise a very close Morrison match, but since they do not share any of the characteristic mutations of F1, F1a, F2a, or F2b may be descended from one of the other F2 branches in a more recent branch.

Subgroup F3 represents Morrisons from the Isle of Man, who are believed to connect to the Scottish Morrisons before 1508. These can be distinguished by the value of 14 for Marker 385b, among others. Note that the DF5 (Subgroup A3) Modal value for Marker 385b, as shown in Subgroup F*, is also 14 and this was probably the ancestral value for all persons who are DF5 positive. If so, then all of the other Morrisons have a mutation to a value of 13 on this marker. Since the Downings and the McAdams and McNeill have it, too, they may all be descended from Morrisons (or Mac Ghille Mhoires) AFTER the Morrison/Mac Ghille Mhoire name was established as a family name. The Morrison DNA signature so far is very limited among these other surnames, indicating a more recent connection. On the other hand, the Moore and Doolins in Subgroup F* are DF5 positive, but do not have this Marker 385b mutation and may connect before surnames were established. Since the Marker 385b mutation is found in ALL of the Scottish Group F Morrisons, it must be that this Morrison family was a small one when the Isle of Man branch separated in about 1508. However, our chart shows the family sent a number of separate migrations to the North of Ireland by the 1600s.

16 Oct 2012 - M327 has been determined to be a member of Group G, Morrisons of Lewis and Harris. M362, of a NC/TN Morrison family, is a new member of Group B. Group AP is a new Morrison genetic group from Oklahoma and West Virginia.

18 Jul 2012 - M358, who descends from Hugh Morrison and Isabella Wilson of Pennsylvania, is a new member of Group M. M355 is a member of new Group AN, which traces to Ballynahinch, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. M357 is a member of new Group AO, which traces to Brentwood, Massachusetts.

15 Mar 2012 - M350 is a new member of Subgroup N1; M351 is a new member of Group Z; M347 is a new member of Group H; M271 is a new member of Subgroup H3.

7 Nov 2011 - The following new members have been added: M344, M345, M346 and M347. M344, a Gilmour, is a new member of Subgroup N1.

22 Sep 2011 - The following new members have been added: M069, M185, M208, M222, M232, M233.

20 Jun 2011 - The following new results have been placed in the groups indicated: P:M339; Q:M343; O:M342; R:M328 & M322; H1:M314 & M336; N2:M304; K2:M335. Also, all haplogroups have been adjusted to use the latest terminology.

4 Jul 2010 - M316 is a new member of Group D. M321 is a new member of Group O.

22 Apr 2010 - New Group AM from Cos. Antrim and Londonderry,N. Ireland. M286 is a new member of Group B Morrisons of Pennsylvania and North Carolina.

- M209, a McElmurray, is a new member of Subgroup N1 McElmurrays, Gilmours and Gilmores.

- M288 is new member of Group T Morrisons of Glenelg and the Isle of Lewis and Harris.

14 Jul 2009 - New Group AH consists of known cousins, as do new Groups AK and AL. Group AI is a new group of Morrisons from New York, and Group AJ is a second group of McLemores connected historically with Group O.

14 Oct 2008 - New Subgroup H3 - New subgroup H3 is included in Group H. In this case Group H seems to consist of several distinct Morrison families that are grouped together only because of similar DNA signatures. The three subgroups are probably only related before surnames were adopted.

5 Aug 2007 - New Group AC - M074 and M189 are two Morrison families from Comrie, Perthshire.

5 Aug 2007 - New Group AD - M014, a Morrison, is a 37-marker match with M207, a Morris. While we do not expect most Morrises to be related to Morrisons, this is the only match that M014 has at 37 markers and so is considered to indicate that these two are of the same family.

5 Aug 2007 - New Group AE - M135 and M206 are both of Gilmore families from Kentucky.

5 Aug 2007 - New Group AF - This group only has one Morrison, M036, whose family is from the Uig district of the Isle of Lewis. The group is listed here to document his close match to a group of MacAulays who are from the same district.

5 Aug 2007 - New Group AG - This group is similar to the one above in that there is only one Morrison, M156. This Morrison is a very high resolution match with Hamilton DNA Project Group B, from Lanarkshire, Scotland. This group is a senior line of the Hamilton family and has a very distinctive set of DNA markers, and so it is unlikely the match with the other surname is due to chance.

15 Mar 2007 - Multi-Copy Markers - Questions have been asked as to how Markers 464a, b, c and d are to be interpreted. For most people, there will be four values for 464. Typical values might be 15, 16, 16, 17. These values indicate the number of repeats found for this marker at four different locations on the Y-chromosome. The lab testing that is normally used only tells us what these four values are and not the location for each value. We need to keep this in mind when comparing results on these markers for two people.

For example, say the two sets of results are as follow:

15 16 16 17

15 15 16 16

it appears that these results are different at two positions, it is only counted as one mismatch. This is because both results contain the values

15 16 16

on three markers. Since we do not know the locations, we assume that the locations are the same for these values. This leaves us with one mismatch where the first set has a value of 17 and the second set has a second value of 15. In other words, we treat this set of markers as we would two hands of cards, sorting them as necessary before comparing them.

We also note that not only is there only one mismatch, the genetic distance for this mismatch is also 1. Normally, the genetic distance between 15 and 17 is considered to be 2, meaning that two 1-step mutations would be required to account for the difference in values. However, mutations that occur for Marker 464 often tend to be multi-step mutations, so in this case we assume that the most likely scenario is that it took one mutation get from 15 to 17, or vice versa.

Other multi-copy markers typically included in our comparisons are 385a and b; 459a and b; CDYa and b; and YCAIIa and b. These all can exhibit multi-step mutations and so must be examined closely when comparing to another set of results to which there is a mismatch.

One particular multi-step mutation on markers of this type occurs when the value of one of the copies is taken on by another of the copies. In the case of our example,

15 16 16 17

might become

15 15 17 17

or something similar. In this case the two middle values were lost and replaced by copies of the two other values, but it could have been other values that were lost and replaced. This is called a Recombinant Loss of Heterozygosity (aka RecLOH) and counts as a single mutation.

Not only that, but a single mutation of this type can cause changes in both Markers 464 and 459 simultaneously. This is typically indicated by repeated values for both of these markers, and would count as a genetic distance of 1 from the markers' state before the mutation.

17 Feb 2007 - New Group AB - Gilmores of Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, N. Ireland - M072 and M187 are members of this Scots-Irish group who migrated to Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.

20 Jan 2007 - Group AA - Prendergasts aka FitzMaurices of Co. Mayo - This new group has been listed because of the strong match of M171 with Prendergasts of various spellings. This family makes up 8 of his 9 matches at 25 markers, and the matches include a known descendant of Maurice de Prendergast, some of whose descendants used the name FitzMaurice and MacMaurice.

20 Jan 2007 - Group J - Morrisons of Isle of Harris, North Uist and Glenelg, Scotland - M170 and M183 are new members of this group - the line of the current Morrison chiefs - with M183 being of a family from Pabbay. An interesting pattern has formed with the values for Marker 458 for this group. A value of 18 is found for the families of N. Uist, 19 for the families of Harris and 20 for the families at Glenelg. To some extent a similar pattern is seen for the 464 markers.

2 Nov 2006 - New Group V - Morrisons of Sutherland, Scotland - M016 and M160 are included in this group. Normally we look for no more than two mismatches on 25 markers, but in this case the marker values are rare and the only other near match at 25 markers is a McLeod of Ullapool, apparently confirming the regional connection with Sutherland.

2 Nov 2006 - Group M - Morrisons of Co. Mayo, Ireland, and Pennsylvania - Group M and Group V, Morrisons of Pennsylvania, have been combined. The rare value of 13.2 for Marker 385b represents a half-step between 13 and 14 repeats for this marker. Some of the members of old Group V may actually be 13.2 also and have had the result rounded up or down by the lab.

26 Oct 2006 - Group Z - Morrisons of Lanarkshire, Scotland, and Co. Down, N. Ireland - M044 and M167 did not previously know that their families were connected. Note that this group overlaps Group K at the 12-marker level. Some of the participants listed as possible members of Group K may find that they are part of Group Z when the test is extended to 25 markers.

26 Oct 2006 - Group Y - Morrisons of Northumberland County, Virginia - M023 and M162 both traced their families to Findley Morrison. The match confirms the families are connected.

22 Aug 2006 - Group X - Ochiltree and Cumnock, Ayrshire, Scotland - These two Morrisons are from nearby towns in Ayrshire. There was no known relationship before the match was found.

21 Jul 2006 - Group W - Rathlin Island, N. Ireland and Glasgow, Scotland - M142 from Rathlin Island in the channel between Ireland and Scotland has been found to be a match with M062, a family from Glasgow. The match is not surprising since the Rathlin Island family has a tradition of migration back and forth to Greenock.

Jul 2006 - Group F - Morrisons of Ballyrashane and Billy Parishes (east of Coleraine), Cos. Londonderry and Antrim, N. Ireland - M139 and M141, families from Ballyrashane, east of Coleraine, have been added as matches to Group F. This relationship was only suspected as a possibility prior to these results, because of similarities in given names used in the areas in 1740. Further research is needed to determine which of these two locations was the earlier home of this family. Tradition is that the family came from Scotland in the 1600’s.

3 May 2006 - Varieties of R1b - Markers for the North Irish Variety of R1b and the conjectured values for a Norwegian variety of R1b have been added to the tables in Groups B, N and F, respectively. The North Irish Variety represents a set of Y-DNA STR markers that appear to have a regional founding ancestor, thought in this case to be Niall of the Nine Hostages. The modal value for Group N matches this haplotype exactly. Group B only has 2 fairly recently related participants, but also seems to be a possible match with this group. A SNP test, which looks for a different form of mutation in the Y-DNA, has recently been developed and can be used for confirmation of this match, should the participants desire. The Norwegian R1b Variety shown in Group F has only been identified within the past month when researcher Ken Nordtfedt found that persons with this set of markers have matches mostly in western Norway. Further study of this variety will be done as more results become available. Testing of Group F on additional STR markers is needed for confirmation that this group belongs to this variety.

3 May 2006 - Group V - Pennsylvania - These families may have common origins in Pennsylvania or Ulster, but the specific connection is not yet known. Note: Merged with Group M on 2 Nov 2006.

3 May 2006 - Group U - Morrisons of Aberdeen, Co. Tyrone, New Brunswick and Pennsylvania - This is an Ulster Scot family, that by tradition came from near Aberdeen, Scotland.

12 Apr 2006 - Group T - Morrisons of Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina - M060 and M111 have now been confirmed as a match on 33 of 37 markers. In addition, results just received for M129 show him to be a 31 of 32 marker match with M111. These three participants are members of Haplogroup R1a, which in Scotland is indicative of Viking ancestry. The R1a haplogroup originated in eastern Europe and is well-represented in Norway. Interestingly, members of the group have matches as close as 29 of 32 with a group of McLeods from Skye.

4 Apr 2006 - Group J - Morrisons of Isle of Harris and Glen Elg, Scotland - Based on the first 12 markers, M117 is a possible match with this group. M117 is of a Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, family who trace their descent to Strond, Isle of Harris. According to Leonard Morrison in his 1880 book on the Morrison family (p. 431), the ancestor from Harris, Angus “Tailor” Morrison, is descended as follows: Angus was son of John, son of Angus, son of Donald, son of Angus, son of John, son of Donald (Ban), son of either Roderick or Angus, both sons of an unnamed Episcopalian clergyman from the Isle of Lewis. The clergyman is said to have been a descendant of the Morrison brieve. If so, this would mean that the current Morrison chiefs are of the same family as the brieves.

31 Mar 2006 - Group R - Morrisons of New York State and Virginia/West Virginia - This is a new group. The specific connection between the two families has not been determined.

31 Mar 2006 - Group S - Morrisons of Clackmannanshire and Kinrossshire, Scotland - This is an interesting match between two families still resident in Scotland. M112 was recruited to the project to verify a suspected connection to M110. The DNA results disproved the connection but resulted in this unexpected match with another Morrison already in the project. This shows that even when DNA results do not give us the expected results, they often further our understanding of the connections between various Morrison families. All is not lost for M110, since his DNA results provided other interesting avenues for exploring his paternal line.

31 Mar 2006 - Group A - Morrisons of Kintyre and Ayrshire, Scotland; Aghadowey, Co. Londonderry, N. Ireland; and New Hampshire - The Hugh Morrison family of Londonderry, NH, has been added to this group through DNA matching. This family is discussed briefly in Leonard Morrison’s book as possibly related to other Morrisons of Londonderry, NH. This match tells us exactly which Morrisons there they were related to.

20 Jan 2006 - Group Q - Morrisons of Glasgow, Scotland; Pennsylvania and Rowan Co., NC - This new group now has three members.

28 Nov 2005 - Group A - Morrisons of Kintyre and Ayrshire, Scotland; Aghadowey, Co. Londonderry, N. Ireland; and New Hampshire - M105 is a new and very interesting match with this group. His family traces back to “Charter” Samuel Morrison of Londonderry, NH. This Morrison family is the subject of most of the second half of Leonard Morrison’s book on the Morrisons and is separate from the NH Morrisons in Group I. The match may explain the match of M043, another NH Morrison, with this group as well as the match of M006 with the group. If so, the mismatching markers would be recent mutations. This could be confirmed or disproved by having a distantly-related descendant of “Charter Samuel” tested. “Charter” Samuel came to New Hampshire with brother David and probably had a sister Mary married to Abram Holmes of the same settlement. Abram and Mary were members of the Presbyterian church at Aghadowey, near Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, N. Ireland, and brought a letter from that church with them to New Hampshire.

The “ancestral result” for the father of the three Morrison brothers who settled in the Rocky River section of Cabarrus County, NC, has been estimated and is designated “A1”. This estimation is based on the probability that if two or more of the three descendants share a particular marker value, the value is probably that of their common ancestor. The three Rocky River descendants are M005, M066 and M067. The differences between the markers of the three are mutations that have occurred in the individual lines sometime since the lines separated. Since the M006 matches the apparent ancestral haplotype of the brothers, it is possible that he is connected either in the USA or in Scotland. The genealogy of M043 has been extended by one generation. This family seems to connect with the other in Scotland. These Morrison families have been traced to both Kintyre and Ayrshire. Since Kintyre is known to have been settled with Ayrshire farmers in the 1600’s, Ayrshire may be the earliest seat of the family yet located.

5 Nov 2005 - Group C - Morrisons of Ballymoney and Finvoy Parishes, County Antrim, N. Ireland - M103, a Morrison whose family recently came from the vicinity of Ballymoney was of a family that shared certain uncommon given names with some of the Morrisons of Group F below, which has also been documented to the vicinity of Ballymoney. Consequently, it was expected that the results would be a DNA match between M103 and Group F. However, when the DNA results became available we found that M103 is a match with Group C. This is great news for members of Group C because it documents a specific location for the family in Ulster. It is also good news for M103 because information can be shared with other members of Group C to assist in researching the deeper ancestry of the family in Ulster and Scotland.

25 Oct 2005 - Group F - Morrisons of Billy Parish, County Antrim, N. Ireland - M068, a representative of a Morrison family still resident in N. Ireland has been added to this group as an exact match on 25 markers. This match confirms a specific place of residence for this Morrison family in Ulster. Earlier genealogical research had indicated that the family of M004 and M027 came to America from Coleraine in 1752. However, no records of the family had been found in Ulster. (See 31 May 2005 discussion.) M040 joined our project independently and was found to be an exact match with the group, even though there was no connection in America. Since M040’s family were more recent immigrants, it was possible to trace the family back through US vital records and census records. These records indicated a marriage in Scotland ca. 1860. Scottish marriage records were checked, and these indicated the family was from Ireland. The given names of the first two generations identified were somewhat unusual - Adam and Joseph. Griffith’s Valuation for Ireland was then checked to see where there may have been Morrisons who used these given names. Billy Parish was the only place that met the criteria. It turned out to be very close to Coleraine. In Ulster, a Morrison family still connected with Billy Parish was located, and they agreed to join the project. The DNA results show an exact match at 25 markers. The shared genealogical data for all these families - including M042, who also has Ulster connections - can now be used to search for the origin of these Morrisons in Scotland.

13 Oct 2005 - Group P - Morrisons of Londonderry, N. Ireland, and Washington Co., PA - These two families had traced their lines to the same immigrant ancestor but were previously unknown to each other. This match confirms that they are of the same Morrison line.

13 Oct 2005 - Buchanan of Ness - M073 was tested to determine whether Buchanans of Ness, Isle of Lewis, shared the same markers with Morrisons of Ness. In this case, the markers were not the same as any Morrisons of Ness so far tested. However, the 12-marker results are identical to several other Buchanans in the Buchanan project and are also identical to the conjectured markers for Colla Uais, a patriarch of the MacDonalds. This Buchanan has two DNA matches with MacDonalds and three matches with Livingstones, who are said to be descended from MacDonalds. This leaves open the possibility that the Ness Buchanans are descendants of the family of Cain MacDonald of Ardnamurchan, but we would need to know more markers for the participant as well as the markers for the Ardnamurchan family to make a comparison.

30 Sep 2005 - New Group L - Morrisons of Ayr and Lanarkshire - One of these families traces to Ayr in 1690; the other traces to Avondale Parish, Lanarkshire, one hundred years later. This possible match has now been confirmed with a 23 of 25 marker match.

24 Sep 2005 - The project has now been active for one year and we have 100 families represented. This is a remarkable degree of participation, even for names as popular as Morrison and Gilmore. This seems a good time to make some general observations on what we have learned so far:

- There are many more unrelated Morrison families than generally thought. This is accounted for largely by the fact that Morrison is a –son name that would be expected to have a number of independent origins. It is further accounted for by the fact that Morrison is a “magnet name” that was frequently used as a substitute for a similarly-sounding Gaelic name when the Gaelic name was Anglicized. Nevertheless, we are beginning to see certain large regional families emerge from our database.

- Approximately 60% of our participants have found a match with another family in the project. Most of these matches have provided important clues to early family origins, and some cases they have provided bridges across the oceans. We expect the degree of matching will increase as our number of participants grows, but for now it is holding steady, indicating there are many distinct families still not represented in our project.

- Some of our participants without matches in the project have found matches with other surnames that give important clues to early regional origins.

- Even participants with no matches have learned which families they are not related to. This can save considerable time in focusing traditional genealogical research efforts.

I want to thank all of the participants for their strong interest and support, both in spreading the word on our project and in providing sponsorship funds to allow us to test more Scottish Morrisons and Gilmores. We can all look forward to learning even more in the coming year.

24 Sep 2005 - Group E - Morrisons/Morrisseys of New York - Two sets of results from the Sorenson database have been added to this group. These two are from the same family as M007, and so provide confirmation of M007’s results as well as values on additional markers. Sorenson provides testing at no cost, but is anonymous and does not provide results directly to participants. It is available to anyone who would like to participate, but the database is not updated frequently, so it may be a number of months before results become available. This first two participants in this group are a 23 of 25 match. One marker that mismatches is the first marker of a pair, which results in the different count on the second marker of the pair. Both families lived in New York State. The Morrissey family is known to have also used the name Morrison. It is interesting to note that these 2 participants are listed with different haplogroups. These haplogroups are deduced from haplogroups of others who are near matches on the Y-DNA markers and have not been determined by haplogroup tests on these participants. The different haplogroups are the result of the Y-DNA markers for these 2 participants being borderline with respect to determining haplogroup. A separate haplogroup test can be ordered to resolve this issue, if desired.

24 Sep 2005 - Group N - Gilmours/Gilmores/McMurreys/Murrays/Moores of Paisley, Renfrew, Scotland - Two of these families have a documented trail to Paisley and one to Dumfries and Galloway. In this group, the name McMurrey is thought to be a variant of MacGilmore and this genetic match supports this thinking. (See Group O for other variants.) The group has been expanded to include a Murray and two Moores who are also genetic matches. These latter names are not being included in the project on their own, but are listed here since they are genetic matches and reasonable variants of Mac Ghille Mhoire. It should be noted that the marker values for this group are held by large numbers of Scots and Irish. Therefore it should be expected that some of the matches in this group are due to convergence.

7 Sep 2005 - Group L - Morrisons of Edinburgh?, Scotland - This group has been removed. 25-marker results did not confirm the apparent match at 12 markers. M023 and M055 had been assigned to this group based on matches of 11 of 12 markers. This degree of matching on these few markers would not normally be sufficient to conclude a high probability of recent relationship because there are usually many convergence matches. However, in this case, M023 was one of only six matches for M055 in the ysearch database and the two share certain rare marker values. It was recommended that M023 upgrade to 25 markers if it was desired to confirm the match. The name, birthplace and history of the earliest known male Morrison ancestor of M055 have not been confirmed. Family tradition is that he was Dr. Robert Morrison, attended Edinburgh University and married Janet Morrison of Perthshire, daughter of William Morrison and Janet Robertson. The descent of M055 through Janet Morrison has been confirmed, but research continues on the paternal line.

3 Sep 2005 - Group O - McLemore and McElmurry of North Carolina and Kentucky - This match supports the theory that the name McLemore is a variant of MacGilmore. See Group N for further variations.

3 Sep 2005 - Group M - Morrisons of County Mayo, Ireland - These two sets of results are from the Sorenson database (http://smgf.org).

3 Aug 2005 - Possible Group - M046 and M060, based on 11 of 12 match. 25-marker results did not confirm this match. It is interesting that M060 is a 24 of 25 match with a MacLeod from the Isle of Skye. M046 is only a 21 of 25 match with the same MacLeod. It will be interesting to see whether the MacLeod match holds up with 37-marker results, which are pending.

23 Jul 2005 - Group J - Morrisons of Pabbay and Glenelg, Scotland - M053 was our first match with M010, the current line of Morrison chiefs and Viscounts Dunrossil. The exact match at 12 markers has now been confirmed by 25-marker results. New results indicate that M051 is also a member of this group. Both M010 and M051 match M053 within 2 markers. (Note that the values of Markers 464 are considered as a set when determining mismatches.) The family of Pabbay relocated to North Uist. The matching families went to Canada from Glenelg, Scotland. Since Glenelg is known to have been a central point of departure for emigrant ships, it is not clear whether the families originally lived in Glenelg or migrated there after leaving their original homes. Additional Morrisons from Harris and Skye are being sought to help establish the earlier range of settlement of families in this group.

23 Jul 2005 - Group I - Morrisons of Aberdeenshire; Co. Londonderry, N. Ireland; Londonderry, New Hampshire, and Virginia - This was previously a group of two families from Virginia. We have now added a third family from Virginia along with the family of genealogist Leonard A. Morrison of Londonderry, NH, author of the most comprehensive Morrison family history that has been published. This NH family has well-documented connections to County Londonderry, N. Ireland, and a tradition of originally being from the county of Aberdeen in Scotland. It will be helpful to confirm the Aberdeenshire connection with other families from that area. It is not clear from current information whether the Virginia families connect in New Hampshire, Ulster or Scotland, but, given the timing of the earliest known ancestors and the closeness of the matches, it seems likely the connection is in Ulster. This latest information is also useful to several other Groups who suspected a possible connection with the Leonard Morrison family but now find there is not one. However, it should be kept in mind that there were as many as five different (possibly unrelated) Morrison families who made the early settlement in Londonderry, NH.

11 Jul 2005 - Group K - Morrisons of Barvas and North Dell, Isle of Lewis - M033 and M034 are and exact match on 25 markers. This is our second group of Lewis Morrisons out of five Lewis Morrisons tested. The first group, Group G, is of Haplotype I, indicating a Norse Viking descent. This group is of Haplotype R1b, indicating probable Celtic descent. There is one other Lewis Morrison, M036, who does not yet have a match. None of these Lewis Morrisons match Group J, the line of the current Morrison chiefs, who have Harris connections. The 25 markers shared by M033 and M034 are very common markers for R1b and result in many close matches with other surnames. Even so, it is interesting to note that this group matches the modal haplotype for the MacDonalds on 24 of 25 markers. This brings to mind the story of the MacDonald who became a Morrison brieve. Additional pedigree information for the two members of this group is still pending.

6 Jul 2005 - Group H - Morisons of Banffshire - We have a 33 of 37 match between M020 and M035. M035 is of a family of Morrisons with connections in Alabama or North Carolina, but has not yet traced his family to the immigrant Morrison. This match shows the power of DNA to provide an indication of ancestral origins even when traditional genealogical information is scarce. M020 has over 40 near matches at 25 markers. If the population of Morrisons vs. the general population of Scots is about 1 in 200, there is a reasonable possibility that 1 of these 25-marker matches would be a Morrison by chance. However, M035 only has 4 close matches at 25 markers, making it much more likely that this match is not due to convergence. For confirmation, M035 upgraded to 37 markers. At 37 markers, M035’s only match is M020, and M020 only has 2 matches, and 1 of whom is M035. M052 has been added to the group as another 33 of 37 match with M035. The markers that are most common to members of the group are considered the “modal” markers for the group and are the markers that have a colored background. These are likely to be the ancestral DNA signature for this group of Morrisons. None of the members of this group have more than 2 or 3 mismatches from the 37 modal markers.

31 May 2005 - Group G - Morrisons of the Isle of Lewis - We now have three results available from the Isle of Lewis, with two of them matching. This indicates there are at least two different genetic lines of Lewis Morrisons. It is noted that the haplogroup for Group G is I (probable Viking ancestry) while the haplogroup for M036 is R1b, which may be Celtic or Nordic.

The results table shows that M018 and M024 match on 24 of 25 markers. For those interested in the technical details of the markers, it is noted here that M018 actually has an extra value for a position designated 464e. Because this value does not occur in our other participants, it is counted as an additional mismatch. Thus the genetic distance between M018 and M024 is 2 instead of 1. The match is equivalent to matching on 23 of 25 markers, close enough to conclude these Morrisons share a recent common ancestor.

31 May 2005 - Group F - Morrisons of Co. Fermanagh and Co. Antrim, N. Ireland - M040 is the newest member of the group and is an exact match with M004 and M027 at 25 markers. This indicates a closer relationship with these two members than with M042. US Census records show the ancestor of M040 who immigrated to Paterson, NJ, about 1870 was born in Scotland. Further research of the family indicates that they probably lived in Billy Parish, County Antrim, before moving to Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, in the mid-1800’s. Billy Parish is only about eight miles from Coleraine, where the ancestor of M004 and M027 is believed to have lived in 1752.

M004 and M027 are an exact 25 of 25 match. This match resulted from intentionally testing known distant cousins and provides excellent confirmation of previous genealogical research. It also confirms the genetic signature of their common ancestor, Hans Morrison, who was born ca. 1725 and moved from Ireland to Pennsylvania. Testing of known or suspected distant cousins is probably the most powerful way to use DNA testing. The results will usually immediately confirm or disprove the relationship.

14 May 2005 - Group C - Morrisons of Co. Londonderry, N. Ireland - M041 is a 23 of 25 match with this group. The most likely scenario is that the three families were related connected in County Londonderry, Ulster. This gives these families an area to focus in for further research.

4 May 2005 - Group A - Morrisons of Campbeltown and Ayrshire - M031 has now been confirmed to be an exact match with other members of this group at 25 markers. His match with this group supports the comments below (12 JAN 2005) regarding a possible origin of the Campbeltown, Kintyre, Morrisons in Ayrshire. New member M037 has also been added to the group based on an exact 25-marker match. This family has made a major advance in knowledge of its family history with this one DNA test: The family history previously extended only to Tennessee in the 1830’s. With DNA, they have established a connection with a major Morrison family in North Carolina who trace to Campbeltown and another connection with a related family who trace to Ayrshire, Scotland.

12 Mar 2005 - Group C - 37-marker results confirm a 90+% probability of a common paternal Morrison ancestor between M009 and M013 based on a match of 34 of 37 markers. Both of these families may have Scots-Irish origins. M020, whose family is from Banffshire, Scotland, matched M013 on 11 of 12 markers, indicating about a 70% probability of recent relationship, and was included as a possible member of this group. 25-marker results did not confirm relationship, but did leave open the possibility. 37-marker upgrades were ordered for both M013 and M020. The 37-marker results for M020 did not confirm the relationship. We can observe at this point that in every case so far where the 25-marker test indicated a relationship, 37-marker tests give the same result. In this case where the relationship was not confirmed at 25 markers, it is still not confirmed at 37 markers. The possibility of relationship still exists, but it is not likely.

A hypothetical modal DNA signature can be developed based on the most common marker at each location for these three participants. M009 and M013 are both with 2 markers of matching this modal signature. However, M020 mismatches the modal signature on 6 of 37 markers. No more than 4 of 37 markers should mismatch for a relationship to be confirmed.

The problem in placing M020 in Group C based on 25 markers was that he mismatched the other members on 4 of 25 markers. If we use a mutation rate of 0.004 per marker per transmission event, then 1 of 25 markers would change every 10 transmission events, which is every 5 generations when comparing two individuals. So a 4 of 25 marker mismatch represents 20 generations, more or less.

Ancestral DNA - It happens that members of Group C are in Haplogroup R1b, the most common one in western Europe. This results in many matches with other surnames at 3 markers distance and greater, raising the possibility that a 4 marker mismatch with a Morrison may be a random one and not due to genealogical relatedness.

These matches with other surnames are much rarer for mismatches of up to 2 0f 25 markers. Therefore we can draw much better conclusions from matches within 2 of 25 markers. Determining the “ancestral DNA” of each line being compared should allow us to keep the number of mismatches lower. For example, if descendants of three lines of an ancestor who immigrated to America are tested, it may be possible to deduce the DNA markers of the immigrant ancestor using a 2 out of 3 voting technique for each marker. If this ancestor was born 10 generations ago, we may have eliminated 1 mismatch when comparing this family to others. If both families find their ancestral DNA, on average we may eliminate 2 mismatches. We are then, in effect, comparing two sets of DNA markers as they were, say, 250 years ago, instead of the way they are now, with additional mutations. Then if the 250-years-ago markers are a close match with each other, we may confirm a common ancestry 500 years ago, if we find the right Morrison to compare against.

The above technique combines additional DNA tests and traditional genealogy as a method to extend the usefulness of DNA testing beyond 10 generations. It may be the only method currently available to establish relationship with distant relatives for those of us with common haplotypes and the popular surname of Morrison.

13 Feb 2005 - Group D - Morrisons of Ohio - This group has been confirmed based on an exact 25-marker match. Genealogical research can now proceed using information from both families.

1 Feb 2005 - M018 provides our first results from the Isle of Lewis. The earliest known ancestor for this family was born in Stornoway or, more likely, South Dell, Barvas Parish, where his son was born. The 12-marker results indicate Haplogroup I, which in Lewis means he was of Norse Viking descent. It is interesting to note that near matches to M018 are most common in Norway, Iceland, and the Isle of Man.

12 Jan 2005 - Group A - Lucius L. Morison/Hayes and the Rocky River Morrisons - We have a match on 35 out of 37 markers between M005 and M006. This match indicates that the families very probably (91% probability) branched apart during the past 300 years. Further testing among descendants in America may be used to determine when.

M005 represents the family of John Morrison (b. ca. 1730) Campbeltown, Scotland, who moved first to Pennsylvania and later to Mecklenburg (now Cabarrus) Co., NC, with brothers James and Robert. This family is well known as the Rocky River Morrisons. M006 represents the family of Lucius L. Hayes (b. 1846) who moved from Wisconsin to Erie Co., PA, about 1850. There is documentary evidence that Lucius was born as a Morison and adopted by relatives named Hayes.

This match not only confirms that Lucius was a Morison, but also links him with a larger Morrison family who have traced their family to the settlement of Campbeltown, Kintyre, in Argyll, Scotland. We see that the different spellings of the Morrison/Morison name do not indicate different families in this case. The Morrisons were members of the Lowland church in Campbeltown, indicating that they may have been part of a settlement made there in the 17th Century, when farmers and craftsmen from Ayrshire and southwest Scotland were brought in.

12 Jan 2005 - Group B - James and Neill Morrison - M001 and M015 now match on 24 out of 25 markers, indicating a 90+% probability of a common paternal Morrison ancestor within 500 years. This match confirms their traditional family history of descent from James Morrison of Philadelphia and Mecklenburg Co., NC. The test results show that the family of James and Neill Morrison of the Providence settlement in Mecklenburg County (M001) is not closely related to the nearby Rocky River Morrisons. This topic has been discussed by historians over the years. These two families have different results on 6 of the 12 markers. The genetic distance between the families is 8, meaning that the sum of the differences in numbers across the twelve markers is 8. A genetic distance of 2 or more means the families are probably not related.

12 Jan 2005 - Possible Group Not Confirmed - A 1-marker mismatch at 12 markers indicated a possible relationship between M004 and M017. M004 is a family that came to Pennsylvania from Ireland about 1752. M017 has been traced to western PA in 1800. At 25 markers, the match was only 20 out of 25, so the relationship was NOT confirmed. It is still possible, but not probable. A y-Search check of how many participants were within 5 markers of M004 indicates a probability that this 20 of 25 match is due to convergence. In other words, there are so many R1b results within 5 markers of M004 that there is a good chance that one would randomly be a Morrison.

4 Jan 2005 - Haplogroups - Scientists have determined that patterns of DNA markers fall into groups, called haplogroups. These haplogroups are indications of deeper ancestry, around ten thousand years ago or more. Although there are specific tests used to determine which haplogroup an individual belongs to, it is usually possible to predict which haplogroup a person is in based on their Y-DNA marker results. That is the method that has been used for most of our project members.

Most of our participants are in Haplogroup R1b. This haplogroup is the most common one in the British Isles and is thought to represent people who wintered the last Ice Age in the Iberian Peninsula and then migrated north as the ice receded. Most people of the old Celtic culture in the British Isles are in Haplogroup R1b. R1b is also found in western Europe, and to a lesser extent in the Scandinavian countries.

M007 is in Haplogroup R1a. R1a is believed to have originated with the first Indo-Europeans in far-eastern Europe and western Asia.

Participant M002 is part of Haplogroup I1b. Many of the ancestors of people in Haplogroup I1b wintered the last Ice Age in the Balkans. These people also moved north as the ice receded, resulting in I1b being more common in central Europe. It is also found in Scandinavian countries. In Scotland, I1b may be taken to be an indication of Viking ancestry,

Participant M008 is part of Haplogroup E3b. This haplogroup is thought to have originated in the Middle East. It is found to some extent around the Mediterranean, but is rarer in the British Isles. Some say that E3b moved to Britain with the migration of the first Neolithic farmers from the Middle East into Europe some 9000 years ago. Because of its rarity in Scotland, matches with other surnames may be more useful than for those in other haplogroups.